On 15 November 2018, a day after the agreement was presented and supported by the Cabinet of the British government, several members of the government resigned, including Dominic Raab, Secretary of State for Exiting the European Union. [28] Free movement will continue until the end of the transition period (or transposition period) and EU and UK nationals will be able to travel to the UK or Member States, as currently permitted by EU law. EU citizens living in their host country before the end of the transition have a right of permanent residence under the Withdrawal Agreement, subject to certain requirements. Under the agreement, the UK and EU27 are free to require EU or UK nationals to apply for a new residency status. 4. The following part (Articles 126-132) contains provisions on the transitional period, which runs until the end of 2020 and is necessary to move from withdrawal to future relations. The agreement also provides for a transitional period that will last until 31 December 2020 and may be extended by mutual agreement. During the transition period, EU legislation remains applicable to the UK (including participation in the European Economic Area, the internal market and the customs union) and the UK will continue to contribute to the EU budget, but the UK will not be represented in EU decision-making bodies. The transition period will give businesses time to adjust to the new situation and the UK and EU governments to negotiate a new EU-UK trade deal. [17] [18] The UK has started formal withdrawal negotiations by formally announcing to the European Council its intention to leave the EU.

With regard to the Irish border issue, there is a protocol on Northern Ireland (the “backstop”) which is annexed to the agreement and defines a return case position that will only enter into force in the absence of evidence of other effective arrangements before the end of the transitional period. If this is the case, the UK will eclipse the EU`s external common law and Northern Ireland will remain in the internal market aspects until such a manifestation is achieved. None of the parties can unilaterally withdraw from this customs union. The aim of this backstop agreement is to avoid a “hard” border in Ireland, where customs controls are necessary. [19] Supplementary protection certificates (SUPPLEMENTARY PROTECTION CERTIFICATES) are subject to Community law, but are applied for and granted as individual national rights. . . .