The Coalition for Rainforest Nations (CfRN) has put in place REDD mechanisms, which positively encourage the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions through tropical deforestation and forest degradation as a measure to combat climate change. To be effective as a reduction, REDD projects must meet a number of strict criteria. For example, they should avoid “leakage” when conservation in one area simply displaces deforestation to another. REDD projects and programmes must also be “in addition” – that is, they must lead directly to a reduction in deforestation and degradation, which is not only due to larger changes in the economy. A project base value must be established to measure progress in reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Countries working on REDD need to develop a national strategy, establish a national forest monitoring system and measure the current carbon content of their forests to measure changes over time. They must also show that their REDD actions do not have unintended negative consequences and, on the contrary, contribute to improving livelihoods. These measures can be difficult to implement and implement, hence the importance of financial support. Maggie Comstock is the Senior Director of Climate Policy at Conservation International. Sophie Bertazzo is the senior editor of Conservation International.
Article 5: REDD- Article 5 contains only two paragraphs, but these paragraphs refer to at least a dozen decisions and elements of other agreements, and the whole history of this extraordinary document is there when you know you have to look for it. Over the past two decades, various studies have estimated that land use change, including deforestation and forest degradation, accounts for 12-29% of global greenhouse gas emissions.    This is why the inclusion of emission reductions resulting from land use changes is considered essential to achieving the UNFCCC`s objectives.  As an approach adopted under the multilateral agreement on climate change, REDD is essentially a tool to encourage developing countries to reduce emissions and improve greenhouse gas reduction through a multitude of forest management options and to support these efforts on a technical and financial level. As with other UNFCCC approaches, there are few provisions that specifically require the implementation of the mechanism at the national level; the principles of national sovereignty and subsidiarity imply that the UNFCCC can only provide guidelines for implementation and require that reports be presented in a given format and can be reviewed by the convention. There are some aspects that go beyond this fundamental philosophy – such as the so-called security measures, which are explained in more detail below – but, for the most part, REDD is nothing more than a set of guidelines on how to account for forest resources and forest management strategies and their results in terms of reducing emissions and improving the elimination of greenhouse gases. However, a number of requirements have been developed to ensure that REDD programs contain key elements and that the parties` reports are consistent and comparable and that their content can be verified against the objectives of the agreement. The article is based on a qualitative analysis of REDD`s content from 162 National Climate Strategies (INDC). This concerns the very part of the Framework Convention that recognizes “common but differentiated” responsibilities between rich and poor countries, as well as the need to promote sustainable management of natural carbon sinks, including biomass, forests and oceans and other terrestrial, coastal and marine ecosystems.
It is reflected in the Paris Agreement, which recognizes “the importance of ensuring the integrity of all ecosystems, including the oceans, and the protection of biodiversity, which some cultures recognize as Mother Earth, and which recognizes the importance for some of the concept of “climate justice”